Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. Social and institutional conditions that make such changes potent generators of fertility decline include the following: (1) emphasis on personal economic contribution (rather than, for example, class status or political loyalty) as the primary factor determining a person's earnings, thus providing an incentive for increased investment in human capital;(2) systems of promotion that provide opportunities for upward social mobility according to merit and tolerate downward social mobility; (3) openness to outside influences that create rising expectations with respect to material standards of living; and (4) emphasis not only on the rights but also on the social and economic responsibilities of the individual. Greater numbers tended to connote greater wealth and power, at least for those at the apex of the social pyramid. Myrdal, Alva. Some of the factors that prompted the fall of fertility in the West also became potent in the less developed countries as concomitants of successful economic and social progress. Parental and kin obligations in the matter of bringing up children are well understood by all adults and informally enforced by the community. Boston: South End Press. The massive losses of life resulting from World War I and from the influenza pandemic at its immediate aftermath, and the sharp drop in the number of births during the war years, were temporary disruptions in the steadily declining trends of fertility and mortality characterizing the prewar decades in the West. The potential for rapid population growth that might be triggered by a fall of mortality was, however much higher when the premodern equilibrium was the result of a combination of high mortality and high fertility. Greater numbers tended to connote greater wealth and power, at least for those at the apex of the social pyramid. This was the pessimistic central vision of T. R. Malthus's 1798 Essay. Families and Family Policies in Europe: Comparative Perspectives. Invariably, the proponents of such policies claimed some results in terms of birth rates somewhat higher than would have been expected in their absence. But the connections between the economic conditions under which people live and their longer lives, on the one hand, and the relationship between the improved health status of adults and their economic productivity as workers, on the other hand, are two possible causal relationships underlying this covariation of life span and economic growth. Science 162: 1,243–1,248. "Social Science and Population Policy." 2001. Governments, it is assumed, would be illadvised to interfere with this natural process by trying to increase birth rates and then seek to fine-tune them at the desirable steady-state level. "Population Policy Cross, Máire, and Sheila Perry, eds. Given the harsh biological and economic constraints premodern societies invariably experienced, that "desirable number" presupposed fairly high fertility; high enough to provide a sufficient margin of safety over mortality. Encyclopedia.com. "Desired Fertility and the Impact of Population Policies." This non-surprising result is then often taken as an indicator of success in reducing aggregate fertility. Population and Development Review 28: 379–418. 1995. As highlighted by Connelly (2008), there are other factors that are more effective than coercion in the long run. This tendency, reflecting market forces but also encouraged by government policy (partly as an antidote for deteriorating dependency ratios as the population becomes older), is likely to continue. Teitelbaum, Michael S., and Jay M. Winter. Population and Development Review 5: 29–59. Remedying such market failure may then be attempted through intervention by the state so as to affect individual behavior in order to best serve the common good–the good of all individuals. The biological and behavioral processes underlying the current improvement in health status are complex, with long-gestating lags linking the growth of the fetus and early childhood biological development, all the way to late life mortality, disability, and health status, as well as impacting intermediate observable outcomes such as cognitive achievements (IQ), schooling, productivity, fertility, and other forms of behavioral adaptation to local environments and policy conditions. Largely due to the unpopularity of the forced sterilisations, the Congress Party was defeated at the elections in 1977 and this ended the population policy. Sometimes, they even try to change the composition of that population. ." 1975. These measures had little effect. Donaldson, Peter J. The justification for such treatment was that while acceptors of family planning services are recruited because the program satisfies their individual need, the program also serves a national developmental need by helping to reduce aggregate population growth, hence deserves priority. edition. Glass, D. V. 1940. Population: Policies and Movements in Europe. As part of post-war reconstruction, Australia adopted a 2% population growth target. These typically included such items as "doorstep accessibility of quality services," "broad choice of contraceptive methods," "forceful IEC [information, education, and communication] programs," "sound financing strategies," "sound management with proper logistics," "evaluation systems," "a continuous process of strategic thinking, planning and management," and "staff leadership for program parameters" (Mahler 1992,p. Population policy means âpolicy or programme recognized by the Govt. Bitter Pills: Population Policies and Their Implementation in Eight Developing Countries. For the next quarter century, population policy in the developing world became essentially synonymous with family planning programs. In the year 1970, the main part of the population is on the bottom of the pyramid which is the pre-reproductive group. Those groups practicing the most advantageous customs will have an advantage in the constant struggle between adjacent groups over those that practise less advantageous customs. Hartmann, Betsy. If the demand was strong enough, fertility would be low, even if birth control technology was primitive. In the countries that the United Nations categorizes as less developed, population policy issues attracted little attention until the middle of the twentieth century. Why this presentation?India with a population of more than one billionscattered in 26 states and 8 union territoriesprovide a unique ground for studying populationprograms management. More than 4 million unauthorized parents of legal status children currently reside in the United States (Capps, Fix, & Zong, 2016). More broadly, policy intent may also aim at modification of qualitative aspects of these phenomena–fertility and international migration–including the composition of the population by various demographic characteristics and the population's spatial distribution. 1971. Religious Traditions: C. Jewish Perspectives, Population Ethics: III. The agenda for research on population policies requires a simultaneous description of the determinants of the supply of public produced health-related services and birth control, and the determinants of private household demands for those services and technologies, including preventive or curative health services, social insurance, subsidies for family planning technologies, schooling attainment of boys and girls, the health and reproductive health content of schooling, etc. Population Growth and Economic Development: Policy Questions. 2002. Section 4 outlines a framework for studying health determinants and consequences. The fabric of such demographically relevant behavioral stances, supported by internalized personal norms and buttressed by religious injunctions, is a product of social evolution; how effective such institutions are becomes an important determinant of societal success. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 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URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444529442000100, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767021653, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B008043076704537X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767039917, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081000977000088, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065240716300179, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, There are two distinct but inter-related elements within international, Baby Booms and Baby Busts in the Twentieth Century, Family Theory: Feminist–Economist Critique, Gynecological Health: Psychosocial Aspects, Human Rights in Intercultural Discourse: Cultural Concerns, Reproductive Rights in Developing Nations, Sexual Behavior: Sociological Perspective, Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Psychosocial Aspects, India has the unsavoury distinction of being one of only two countries where coercion has been used in family planning programmes (the other being China). This was powerfully reinforced by some programmatic activities that were consistent with the limited role the liberal state claimed in managing the economy. The question, to which no good answers exist at the dawn of the twenty-first century, is "how far below?" Section 3 reviews some stylized facts about health and fertility, and economic development. (October 16, 2020). Accordingly, making these policies more generous–socializing an even larger share of child costs–is often seen as a means toward increasing fertility, whether as an outright policy objective or, more in the prevailing spirit of the time, as an unintended but welcome byproduct. Encyclopedia of Population. Malthusians argued that the state's correct stance in demographic matters, as in the economy at large, was laissez faire. 1995. Population Ethics: I. The average length of life in the world has approximately doubled from the start of the nineteenth to the start of the twenty-first centuries, from 30–35 years to 60–70 years, with the recent notable exception being several states in Southern and Eastern Africa where life expectancy has declined due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Demography 23: 473–487. The syndrome, as was noted above, is not entirely novel: it was detectable in fertility trends in the West, especially in Europe, in the 1920s and 1930s, and in some instances, notably in France, even earlier. To claim a role for the state in the matter of fertility is more problematic. Not surprisingly, there are increasing efforts in national programs to rely on the market in enhancing access to contraceptives and to provide program services on a fee-for-service basis. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development. Weakness of measures of latent demand, or "unmet need," is reflected in the requirements that programs are supposed to satisfy if they are to be successful. This trend became more accentuated and more general under the impact of the Great Depression. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. A. Singapore's changing population policies Singapore's recent history has seen the city state use both anti-natalist policies aimed to reduce birth rates and, more recently, pro-natalist policies aimed to increase fertility and increase the number of births and therefore young people in the country. May, World Population Policies, 1-2. ." Modernity–the rise of democratic state formations reflecting the public interest and the emergence of rapid economic development–brought about the realistic promise of realizing age-old human aspirations for a better life. 1990. European, and also East Asian experience suggests that fertility has a tendency to settle below an average of two children per woman, hence a tendency toward sustained population decline. ——. Davis, Kingsley. Religious Traditions: A. A population may refer to an entire group of people, objects, events, hospital visits, or measurements. ——. Although, owing to relatively youthful age distributions, the rate of natural increase remained positive, by the late 1920s demographers realized that fertility rates in several Western countries had fallen to such a low level that, in the longer term, natural increase would become negative. India has the unsavoury distinction of being one of only two countries where coercion has been used in family planning programmes (the other being China). Such a level, if maintained indefinitely, would result in a population loss of one-third from generation to generation, that is, roughly, over each period of some 30 years. 2002. But it is far from clear whether the fertility differential so generated is high enough to bring the total fertility rate back to replacement level. And most importantly, the state, or local government, assumed a key role in fostering, organizing, and financing public education. Even though population issues tend to be sui generis, reflecting differences in demographic behavior country-by-country, there was, and remains, a perceived dissonance between fertility-lowering assistance to other countries and engaging in action at home serving the opposite aims. Without an understanding of how people respond to the provision of new health opportunities and means for controlling births, it is difficult to discuss the tradeoffs on which population policies seek traction. And informal rules shaped by community interest tend effectively to regulate the entry of foreigners. Johansson, S. Ryan. 1991. Sustainable Population Policy in the UK Unsustainable population is a global problem requiring international solution. But the latter quantity is a hypothetical one, which introduces a necessary caution to such claims. Understanding these causal relationships could inform the choice of population policies related to health, family planning, and migration, and improve the basis for predicting future economic development. "Political Will and Family Planning: The Implications of India's Emergency Experience." The new label partly reflected a political-ideological preference, but in part also the fact that some distinctive features of pronatalism–such as differential rewards that favored large families, and non-means-tested or even regressive allocation of family and child benefits–were generally no longer acceptable. Warwick, Donald P. 1982. In the spirit of the Malthusian concerns of his time, Lloyd (1833/1968, pp. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. To Malthus, the causes of these divergent responses were to be found in the circumstances, social and political, in which people lived–in particular, whether those circumstances hindered or rewarded planning for the future. It is possible to group most population policies in two categories, pro-natalist and anti-natalist, but there is a third category as well, known as eugenics. During the interval between the onset of the decline in mortality and the sustained and substantial decline in fertility, the natural rate of population growth tends to increase and the age composition of the population changes. Third, when those longer-term demographic effects are understood, a calmer attitude still prevails. J.L. 85–109, ed. The collected international community view can be traced through population conferences. The Departmentâ "Population Policy: Will Current Programs Succeed?" In statistics, a population is the entire pool from which a statistical sample is drawn. In Europe this trend was facilitated by emigration, which both sending and receiving countries–notably the United States, Canada, and Australia–either positively encouraged or at least permitted. There are two distinct but inter-related elements within international population policy: bilateral relationships and multilateral activity. 1969. This chapter applies a social justice perspective, largely stemming from Prilleltensky's critical community psychological framework, to improve the relevance and usefulness of research on mixed-status families (Prilleltensky & Nelson, 1997). Section 9 notes the connections between the demographic transition, development, and internal migration, and the problems its raises for policy evaluation studies. That willing immigrants are available to compensate for low birth rates is taken for granted–a realistic assumption in high-income countries. Pronatalist interventions would find at best a marginal place on governments' policy agendas. Faulty logic notwithstanding, the international terrain has not been favorable for domestic pronatalism. "Demography as Social Science and Policy Science." Satisfied customers, in turn, would serve as role models, bringing new clients to the program. By accepting the service voluntarily, the individual acceptor demonstrates that she values that service. 250–251), spell out a broad agenda which expresses the philosophy that came to be dominant in the liberal states of the West in the nineteenth century. The generality of the definition lends itself to varying interpretations. This article analyzes population policy as the outcome of political conflict over demographic issues that touch on some of the most basic values in society. The Logic of Collective Action. In most societies there is the expectation that children are to be born to married couples only; that a man can have one wife at a time; that a husband is obligated to support his wife and a father his children; and that he can expect reciprocal services from them. . Thereâs a debate over whether or not the policy worked. Evidence on these relationships is accumulating in a variety of disciplines and subfields of economics, and a number of emerging hypotheses merit refinement and concerted empirical study to test the magnitude of behavioral and technical responses, to determine which biological and behavioral pathways are involved in these responses, and to assess longer-run consequences of programs and policies after individuals and families reallocate their lifetime resources. The earliest clear formulation of the population problem as a problem of coordination among individual preferences, hence establishment of the rationale for potential state intervention in the matter of fertility, was given by William Foster Lloyd, an Oxford mathematician and economist, in an essay published in 1833. But beyond this, new emphasis was put on some requirements that would contribute to women's empowerment: reduction of infant and maternal mortality and improvement in girls' education and women's opportunities for employment and political participation. 2000. By the last quarter of the nineteenth century birth rates were falling rapidly in the countries of the West. ." By and large, however, this response has not been evident. 1986. Lloyd, W. F. 1968 (1833). Some observers foresaw a "twilight of parenthood.". Population Policy and Demographic Analysis. 1994. The central function of the state was to produce public goods–goods that individuals cannot secure for themselves. Replacement Migration: Is It a Solution to Declining and Ageing Populations? Toward the end of this period, however, a quite different demographic phenomenon has begun to attract increasing attention: aggregate fertility levels that are inadequate for the long-run maintenance of the population. The numbers and size of population growth to come remain very large, with another two billion persons to be added by the midpoint of the twenty-first century, almost all in urban areas. Population policies are primarily a response to the anticipated consequences of fertility and mortality, and secondarily to internal and international migration that also modify the size, age composition, and regional distribution of the population. Randomized allocations of program and policy treatments can be especially informative in this field, but may not provide a general basis to forecast policy effects. The higher fertility in countries (notably in Scandinavia) where such measures are strongly applied, compared to countries (especially those in Southern Europe) where they are largely absent, suggests that enhanced compatibility (through day-care services, flexible work-hours, liberal sick-leave allowances, and the like) is an effective pronatalist policy even if motivated by other considerations. Achieving a healthy and educated world population is an important U.S. strategic objective. Population Policy Population policies are primarily a response to the anticipated consequences of fertility and mortality, and secondarily to internal and international migration that also modify the size, age composition, and regional distribution of the population. The effectiveness of family planning programs in reducing fertility remains a matter of controversy. The large Chinese population is a result of historical factors. Population policy 1. Just as excessive reproduction called for corrective public policies, there were calls for corrective action achieving the opposite result: enhancing fertility so as to assure at least the simple maintenance of the population. Similarly, if programs have seemingly only minor success in reducing fertility, this can be taken as evidence that the program is inadequately financed, organized, and managed: greater efforts would have led to better results. Section 2 surveys the historical changes in demographic rates. "Community-level Population Policy: An Exploration." Berelson, Bernard. Typically, there is strong expectation that men and women should marry and have children. But Malthus also envisaged a different, happier possible outcome: "a decided improvement in the modes of subsistence, and the conveniences and comforts enjoyed, without a proportionate acceleration of the rate of [population] increase.". While this momentum effect is temporary, the longer-term implications for population decline and population aging are only dimly perceived by the general public and provide an excuse for inaction on the part of policymakers. "Our Next Forty Years." "The Cairo Conference on Population and Development: A New Paradigm?" Committee on Population. Compensatory immigration flows would have to be so large as to be inconsistent with any reasonable degree of cultural and ethnic continuity. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Below Replacement Fertility. The strict one-child policy only applied to 36 percent of the population. "'Implicit' Policy and Fertility during Development." Special Issue, Nos. Bongaarts, John. Social norms and sanction…, Overpopulation Measures encouraging marriage and sometimes immigration testify to the prevailing populationist sentiment among rulers throughout history. A landmark in the population policy of the country was the draft statement of Population Policy, issued in the Parliament in 1976, expressing the governmentâs determination to control population growth. This underlines the importance of instituting voluntary family planning programmes, if we want to have sustainable population control. Those trends soon made it evident that there is no built-in guarantee that the sum total of individual fertility decisions will eventually settle at a point at which, in the aggregate, the rate of population growth will be exactly zero or fluctuate tightly around a zero rate. Population policies are primarily a response to the anticipated consequences of fertility and mortality, and secondarily to internal and international migration that also modify the size, age composition, and regional distribution of the population. A demographic policy often regarded as potentially helpful in this regard is encouragement of immigration. This approach was tried in the interwar years, but, as noted above, with at best limited success. It has also undoubtedly hurt social marketing campaigns and it will take a long time to regain the trust of the people. Demographers and population scientists have generally approached population policy as a scientific question. Indeed, it is typically assumed that existing family and welfare policies sustain fertility above a level that would ensue in their absence. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Such externalities, positive and negative, do represent a legitimate concern for all those affected. Additions to membership are effected only through births and immigration, losses are caused by emigration and by deaths. Section 7 turns to fertility, and focuses on the macroeconomic evidence of the consequences of fertility change and specifically its effect on economic growth, whereas Section 8 reviews briefly the microliterature on the determinants of fertility decline and the effects of policy-induced voluntary declines in fertility on the welfare of women, their families and communities that might be attributed to effective family planning and reproductive health programs.
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