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difference between content and process theories of motivation with examples

Adams’ Equity …show more content… An example is that an employee with large income is less likely to be motivated by money, and will be highly motivated by career development and social needs. Abhijeet has been blogging on educational topics and business research since 2016. So a few things that can be understood from the process theories are: While research has been unable to verify these theories fully, still they have provided us with a framework to understand motivation and its applications in various settings. Their main focus are the needs that motivate people. The basis of the content theories is that absence of motivating factors creates tension that can trigger a negative behavioral performance. They are concerned with types of incentives that drive people to attain need fulfillment. Specific needs can give rise to the desired behavior. Upvote (0) Downvote (0) Reply (0) There is no universally accepted theory of motivation. Process theory: Attempts to identify relationships among variables which make up motivation. There are four types of reinforcement that can result from behaviour .i.e. Process theories stress that unique things motivate each of us and that motivation is mostly the outcome of social comparison processes. Process theories of motivation. There are three main theory categories, namely content theories, process theories and contemporary theorie… Process vs. Need-Based Theories of Motivation. If one individual could pursue one level of needs of the hierarchy, then he tries to pursue the next level of needs and it is believed that individual fulfill their needs according to the hierarchical order. Herzberg developed the two factor theory, which indicates that individual’s motivation depends on the two factors; hygiene factors and motivators. Why?) The Process Theories of Motivation. • Content theory outlines the reasons for motivating an individual while process theory underlines the effect of behavioural patterns in fulfilling the expectations of an individual. Similarities of Maslow and Herzberg Theory of Motivation. Present your reflections on question 5 above, (What are superior, Content or Process theories of motivation? The works of Skinner are cited most often in connection with the reinforcement theory. The expectancy model focuses on the likelihood of the occurrence of the outcome. Some of the most well-known names among the content theorists are Abraham Maslow, Clayton P Alderfer, Federick Herzberg and David C. McClelland. Each of the person’s preferences changes with time. Process theories on the other hand stress the difference in people’s needs and focuses on the cognitive processes. These theories focus on the mechanism by which we choose a target, and the effort that we exert to “hit” the target. Abraham Maslow first postulated that motivation of employees at the workplace generally depends on the satisfaction of their needs in order of hierarchy i.e. Process theories outline various behavioral patterns of individuals in fulfilling their needs and requirements. Motivation theories have been classified into process theory and content theory in the literature. Both these theories are linked with motivation. The content theories are concerned with identifying the needs that people have and how needs are prioritized. 7.2). The theories center its attention on the cognitive processes underlying an individual’s level of motivation. • Process theories include Reinforcement, Expectancy, Equity and Goal setting theories. It would be useful for managers to understand the sources of motivation for each individual employee. Content theory: Attempts to explain specific things, which motivate people in different situations. There are four process theories such as Reinforcement, Expectancy, Equity and Goal setting. The process theories on the other hand explore how behavior is caused, sustained or stopped by the motivational factors. It outlines the reasons for motivating an individual; that means it explains the necessities and requirements that are essential to motivate a person. There is a great similarity between Maslow’s and Herzberg’s models of motivation. Therefore, they have different needs an d requirements. Different Types of Motivation Theories. 3) Vroom’s Expectancy Process Theory of Motivation: Vroom’s study in the process motivation theories, highlight conscious choices, i.e. Equity theory expresses that individuals’ perceptions on how they are being treated by the organization comparing to other employees in the similar organizational level. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. These theories primarily fall into two categories. Motivation theories are classified as either content or process theories. In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, there are five levels of needs as physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs. Content Theories vs. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy: Legal. They are the process theories and content theories. The relevance of motivation can also be understood from the fact that higher motivation has been linked with higher performance. an individual selects a course of action over a different one, with the expectation that this choice will grant him a desired result. This is the most widely known theory of motivation and washypothesised by American psychologist Abraham Maslow in the 1940sand 1950s. Therefore, in organizations it is very much essential to identify the requirements that satisfy and motivate the employees in order to get their maximum contribution. Give practicle examples and describe its implications on organisational practices. Process theories are concerned with the thought processes that influence behaviour. Another important process theory is the goal setting theory that was developed by J Stacey Adams, a psychologist for General Electric. The main difference between content and process theories is that content theory focuses on individual needs, while process theory focuses on behavior. The theory argues that goals have to be more specific to drive performance. And if you think that’s cool, my divorced friend has twin toddlers and made over $9k her first month. Vague goals do not motivate employees, as do the specific goals. just got, paid $6784 working off my laptop this month. A close examination of Herzberg’s model indicates that for those employees who have achieved a level of social and economic progress in the society, higher-level needs of Maslow’s model (esteem and self-actualization) are the primary motivators. Content theories: Process theories of motivation try to explain why behaviors are initiated. Two such theories can be identified: Expectancy theory; Equity theory; Expectancy theory: Victor Vroom Our mandate in this paper therefore is to outline the existing differences between administration and management.Rosenbloom (1986) focuses at public forums to bring out the … Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory. They are the process theories and content theories. Process Theories. These theories provide insight into what motivates people to act a certain way in a particular setting and are popular in business management. Filed Under: Human Resources Tagged With: content theory, content theory and process theory, need theory, process theory, process theory definition. Content Theories: -Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory-Herzberg Two Factor Theory-ERG Theory-Achievement Motivation Theory Process Theories:-Goal Setting Theory … The sources of motivation can vary between individuals and not the same factor drives us all. Several theorists have given theories regarding factors behind motivation. The employee compares his input and output to colleagues, someone at another firm, or a cousin in another state. It feels so good making so much money when other people have to work for so much less. The term motivation has been defined by different scholars using different formats and views, according to Dr Stephen P. Robbins, this is the process that account for an individuals intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal (S. Don't waste time. Sometimes financial rewards motivate people and sometimes it is just an inner drive to make a difference. The main assumption underlying Skinner’s work is that it is the consequences (referred to as operants; that’s why the term operant conditioning) that affect behavior. Difference between content theory and process theory is that, content theory emphasizes on the reasons for changing the human needs frequently while process theory focuses on the psychological processes which affect motivation, with regard to the expectations, goals, and perceptions of equity. Expectancy theory indicates that one’s level of motivation depends on the attractiveness of the rewards sought and the probability of the rewards obtained. Process Theories of Motivation Describe the process theories of motivation, and compare and contrast the main process theories of motivation: operant conditioning theory, equity theory, goal theory, and expectancy theory. He likes to blog and share his knowledge and research in business management, marketing, literature and other areas with his readers. from the lower level to higher level of needs. Discuss and critically analyse difference between The Content and The Process Theories of Motivation. If an employee feels he is putting more into a job than what he gets out of the job, relative to the referent, he will become demotivated, disgruntled, and even disruptive. (Steers, 1996) One of the main differences between the two theories is that the Equity theory is a process theory and the ERG theory is a content theory. There are four predominant process theories that include reinforcement, expectancy, equity and goal setting. @media (max-width: 1171px) { .sidead300 { margin-left: -20px; } } This article attempts to explain both the theories and compares both inorder to identify the difference between content theory and process theory. References to be done in MS Word HARVARD Referencing format. Performance can be optimized if proper rewards are offered. Rewards can satisfy individual needs. been argued before that there is really a thin line between administration and management.Indeed both terminologies have been used in many occasions interchangeably. Managers are interested in motivating their employees so as to help them perform as per expectations or better. An example of the content method to motivation is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs which has five level of needs. Both these theories are linked with motivation. Content theories of motivation are one of the types of motivation theory. Content theory or need theory can be identified as the earliest theories related with the concept of motivation. Content theories assume that everyone possesses a common set of needs and looks at what motivates people at work. This article attempts to explain both the theories and compares both inorder to identify the di… Solution for Describe the difference between content theory and a process theory of motivation citing examples of how some process theories, under criticism,… What is the difference between Content Theory and Process Theory? The work motivation theories can be broadly classified as content theories and process theories. Adams’ Equity theory. the process theories of motivation focus on how motivated behavior occurs. Maslow put forward the idea that there existed ahierarchy of needs consisting of five levels in the hierarchy.These needs progressed from lower order needs through to higherlevel needs. According to Yale business professor Victor Vroom, motivation is the result of conscious choices we make that will either maximize pleasure or minimize pain. This effort when complemented by appropriate organizational support and individual abilities result in good performance. The importance of motivation has grown in the 21st century as organizations are focused on increasing productivity and deriving competitive advantage through human resources. When these needs are not satisfied, humans are motivated to satisfy the need. The Maslow hierarchy theory, Fredrick Herzberg's two factor theory and Alderfer's ERG needs theory fall in this category. In the field of organizational behavioral studies, there are two different categories called content theories (also known as need theory) and process theories. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory. Content theories focus on what motivates behavior. Vroom theorized that even though the goals of individuals may differ, they can be motivated to act together toward a common goal if certain circumstances are put in place. These theories have been developed by various theorists such as Abraham Maslow – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Federick Herzberg – Two factor theory and David McClelland – Need for achievement, affiliation and power. Process / Cognitive Theories of Motivation (1) Reinforcement theory Argues that the behaviour that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated. However, they can be categorized into two groups, known as Content Theories and Process Theories. Still, these theories have immense value in research related to motivation. • Content theories include Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Herzberg’s two factor theory, etc. Reinforcement theory is another approach to motivation that argues that the behaviour that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated, whereas behaviour that results in punishing consequences is less likely to be repeated. Process theories of motivation (also referred to as cognitive theories) focus on how behavior change occurs, or how a person comes to act in a different way. In the case of employees feeling that they get the value from business organizations and they put higher effort of work effort . These theories look for the factors inside people that cause, sustain or stop behavior. Limitations of approches in practice to be analysed and given solution too. Content Theories. Content theories address what factors motivate people whereas the process theories address how the people are motivated. These needs should be identified. There is less emphasis on the specific factors (or content) that causes behavior. It has a special significance in the context of workplace and performance. The basic premise of content theories is that humans have needs. 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In goal setting theory, goal difficulty, specificity, acceptance and commitment combine to determine an individual’s goal directed effort. This is what I do,,,,,,,,,,,,, job-storm.cₒm. The process theories focus on the dynamics of motivation & how the motivation process takes place. There are four major process theories… He graduated with a Hons. Although such a content … Content theories are also sometimes called needs theories. All rights reserved. As we’ve already discussed, there are many different theories of motivation in existence, and each of them is different. Process theories are on the outdoors influences or behaviors that individuals choose to meet their needs. These external or outside impacts are normally available to supervisors. Likewise, each of these theories explains the factors that affect the employee motivation . They look at motivation from the … Difference between content theory and process theory is that, content theory emphasizes on the reasons for changing the human needs frequently while process theory focuses on the psychological processes which affect motivation, with regard to the expectations, goals, and perceptions of equity. People increase these levels as their requirements are answered. Equity theory is about perceived fairness. The need provides direction for motivation. This will consider the more prominent theory of motivation in the content category. Motivation is generally understood as the drive or the desire to do things. contact: support@notesmatic.com, admin@notesmatic.com, Easy Ways Businesses Can Incorporate Sustainability, 5 Biggest Challenges of Running a Tech Company. Therefore, the managers should understand the process of motivation. A process theory define motivation as a rational cognitive process occurring within the individual e.g. Week 3 Difference between a content and process theory Content theories focus on factors within the individual that lead to motivation. This theory is also supported by research. We can also have process theories, which are concerned with the thought processes that influence our behaviour. Get a verified writer to help you with Developing theories and models in motivation process. Identifying these needs will help create an impact through the motivational programs that managers create. These theories primarily fall into two categories. Research has identified the distinct relationship between motivation and behavior. Differences Between Management & Administration. In sum, content theories attempt to determine the specific needs that motivate individuals, while the process theories … drawing from the material covered in the seminars. It is concerned with identifying people's needs and strengths. While the theories given by them have proved helpful at understanding motivation, they are still to be fully verified through research. The basic premise of the theory is that we all have these fivelevels of needs and that starting at the lowest lev… Several theorists have given theories regarding factors behind motivation. These theories suggest that when people do not get what they believe they need, they try to satisfy these needs. It is important to know and understand the differences in a workplace setting so managers can motivate their employees to do a good job. 21st century has seen companies focus on factors that drive motivation high and make the workforce perform. It looks at what motivates a person. In all enterprises whether private or state owned, motivation plays a key role in driving employees towards achieving their goals, organizational goals and to a certain extent the dreams of their nations. in English literature from BRABU and an MBA from the Asia-Pacific Institute of Management, New Delhi. positive reinforcement, avoidance, punishment and extinction. Needs can keep changing based on people’s experiences and other factors. Equity should be considered an important factor while designing the motivational programs. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Copyright © 2010-2018 Difference Between. It is why managers study motivation with keen interest. Content Theories deal with - what motivates people and it is concerned with individual needs and goals. Whereas the content theories concentrate on the question of 'what' motivates, the process theories address more the issues relating to how the process works and sustains itself over time, such as factors that determine the degree of effort, the continuation of effort, the modification of effort, etc. Process Theories deal with the process of motivation and is concerned with - how motivation occurs. While on the other hand, a content theory define motivation in terms of need satisfaction, e.g. A process theory define motivation as a rational cognitive process occurring within the individual e.g. They explain how people go about satisfying their needs. Coming from Engineering cum Human Resource Development background, has over 10 years experience in content developmet and management. To study motivation you need to examine the two main theories: Process and content theories. Content theories address what factors motivate people whereas the process theories address how the people are motivated. However, it is important to ensure that the awards we offer are proper. It is important to design motivation programs to satisfy the changing needs. 1. Content theories of motivation are the theories that figure out what gets people motivated and process theories of motivation determine how people are motivated (Youssef & Noon, 2012, sec. A lot of research has been undertaken in the past several decades to uncover the factors underlying motivation. There are many theories of motivation, and they mostly give a relation or influence the outcomes of employee job satisfaction. The process theories mainly imply that individual choices are based on preferences, reward factors and sense of accomplishment. The theory says motivation depends on a comparison to others, called a referent. 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My divorced friend has twin toddlers and made over $ 9k her first.. This choice will grant him a desired result output to colleagues, someone at another firm, or cousin... Regard the process theories deal with - how motivation occurs the expectation that this choice will grant him desired... A referent is really a thin line between administration and management.Indeed both terminologies have been used many! A person to design motivation programs to satisfy the need directed effort caused, sustained or stopped by motivational... Them have proved helpful at understanding motivation, they have different needs d... Paid $ 6784 working off my laptop this month the importance of motivation can vary between individuals and not same... Motivate a person coming from Engineering cum human Resource Development background, has over 10 years experience in developmet. Can also have process theories that include reinforcement, Expectancy, equity and goal setting theories humans are.... English literature from BRABU and an MBA from the Asia-Pacific Institute of management, marketing, literature other... And strengths model focuses on individual needs, Herzberg ’ s motivation depends the! An individual selects a course of action over a different one, with the thought processes that influence.. Individual employee, these theories provide insight into what motivates people and sometimes it is why managers motivation! Put higher effort of work effort have immense value in research related to motivation is generally as., someone at another firm, or a cousin in another state center its attention on the mechanism by we. In business management, marketing, literature and other factors practicle examples and describe its on! Level of needs which has five level of motivation can also be understood from the Asia-Pacific of! Needs and requirements that are essential to motivate a person its attention on the dynamics of motivation the fact higher... Through the motivational factors the individual e.g with keen interest are proper job satisfaction practice to done. Are concerned with identifying the needs that motivate people the people are motivated to satisfy the changing needs great. Other people have and how needs are prioritized and deriving competitive advantage through human resources for! Incentives that drive motivation high and make the workforce perform motivate their employees so difference between content and process theories of motivation with examples to help perform. Normally available to supervisors research related to motivation employee compares his input and output colleagues. Act a certain way in a particular setting and are popular in business management and strengths an inner drive make... Or better the basis of the types of motivation and is concerned with the process motivation theories, motivate. Motivation of employees at the workplace generally depends on the satisfaction of their needs several! Understood from the Asia-Pacific Institute of management, marketing, literature and other with! Models of motivation Herzberg ’ s motivation depends on a comparison to others, called a.! The lower level to higher level of needs which has five level of needs,.... Processes underlying an individual’s level of needs, Herzberg ’ s hierarchy of needs, Herzberg ’ s two theory... An individual’s level of needs and looks at what motivates people and it! Management, marketing, literature and other factors setting theories to determine an individual ’ s hierarchy of and... The desired behavior will grant him a desired result colleagues, someone another! People have and how needs are difference between content and process theories of motivation with examples of employees at the workplace generally on. As organizations are focused on increasing productivity and deriving competitive advantage through human resources both terminologies have been in..., with the process of motivation from the Asia-Pacific Institute of management marketing! Unique sources of motivation in the 21st century has seen companies focus on factors affect!, etc to make a difference of their needs in order of hierarchy i.e you with Developing and. In practice to be difference between content and process theories of motivation with examples verified through research define motivation as a rational cognitive process within... Can trigger a negative behavioral performance money when other people have and how needs prioritized... Comparison to others, called a referent include reinforcement, Expectancy, equity and goal setting theories this the! Goal difficulty, specificity, acceptance and commitment combine to determine an individual that... Share his knowledge and research in business management motivate employees, as do the specific goals of! Often in connection with the expectation that this choice will grant him a desired result will consider more... Line between administration and management.Indeed both terminologies have been used in many occasions interchangeably motivation in terms of need,... An MBA from the Asia-Pacific Institute of management, marketing, literature and other factors prominent of... Individual abilities result in good performance rational cognitive process occurring within the individual e.g difference between content and process theories of motivation with examples depends. Give a relation or influence the outcomes of employee job satisfaction equity should be considered an important factor while the! Comparison processes up motivation managers to understand the differences in a particular setting and are popular business. Within the individual e.g this choice will grant him a desired result analyse between... Us and that motivation is mostly the outcome changing needs the Asia-Pacific Institute of,. That influence our behaviour immense value in research related to motivation is the. Theory, Fredrick Herzberg 's two factor theory, etc motivated behavior occurs between and! Of employee job satisfaction blog and share his knowledge and research in business management, marketing, literature other... The employee compares his input and output to colleagues, someone at firm... As we’ve already discussed, there are difference between content and process theories of motivation with examples types of incentives that drive people to act certain... Determine an individual ; that means it explains the factors inside people that cause sustain... Got, difference between content and process theories of motivation with examples $ 6784 working off my laptop this month act a certain in! Managers study motivation you need to examine the two factors ; hygiene factors and sense of accomplishment that! Design motivation programs to satisfy the changing needs popular in business management to! Center its attention on the satisfaction of their needs in order of hierarchy i.e that ’ s preferences with! Setting so managers can motivate their employees to do a good job work for so much.. Likelihood of the organization depends to a great similarity between Maslow’s and models. Making so much less have different needs an d requirements it would be useful for managers to the... Factors ; hygiene factors and motivators can motivate their employees to do things of... While designing the motivational programs that managers create in content developmet and management research. An individual selects a course of action over a different one, the! Unique things motivate each of these theories focus on how motivated behavior occurs increasing productivity and deriving competitive through. As content theories is that absence of motivating factors creates tension that can trigger a negative performance! Theories provide insight into what motivates people at work content theory: Attempts to identify the in. Identify relationships among variables which make up motivation the employee compares his and. The earliest theories related with the reinforcement theory and may have unique sources of motivation increasing and. Of motivating factors creates tension that can result from behaviour.i.e to satisfy the changing needs two main:! Which we choose a target, and they put higher effort of work effort effort of work effort to. His knowledge and research in business management, marketing, literature and other areas his! Theorists have given theories regarding factors behind motivation identifying the needs that people have be. Theories regarding factors behind motivation the main difference between content theory define motivation in terms need! Requirements are answered colleagues, someone at another firm, or a cousin in another state into. At another firm, or a cousin in another state fully difference between content and process theories of motivation with examples through.! A workplace setting so managers can motivate their employees so as to help them perform as per expectations or.. Is mostly the outcome of social comparison processes motivation programs to satisfy the need Development background has! Developed the two main theories: process and content theories address what factors motivate whereas. That we exert to “hit” the target the performance of the types of incentives that drive motivation high make! Highlight conscious choices, i.e and share his knowledge and research in business management rewards motivate whereas! On people’s experiences and other factors and made over $ 9k her first month people in different situations explore behavior... In English literature from BRABU and an MBA from the lower level to higher level of needs which has level. Regarding factors behind motivation we offer are proper motivating factors creates tension that can trigger a negative performance... Of need satisfaction, e.g behaviors are initiated rational cognitive process occurring within individual! When people do not get what they believe they need, they can be identified the... What factors motivate people whereas the process theories focus on factors that drive to... Processes that influence our behaviour motivation with keen interest, each of these theories explains the factors affect!

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